Thursday, 27 October 2011

PIC12F675 Single RGB LED Controller

Hi this is my next good one for you

PIC12F675 Single RGB LED Controller

to download the source code please click here
Reade more >>

Friday, 21 October 2011

PIC Forums

Hi this is my next good one for you

    Microchip Forum           

    Electro Tech Online Forum
    PIC Webring             

    DIY Christmas           

Reade more >>

Electronic component Suppliers

Hi this is my next good one for you



    Crownhill Associates    

    DIP Micro               


    Fast Components         


    FTDI Chip               

    LED Bulbs               



    Rapid Online            
    Toby Electronics        


Reade more >>

Languages & Simulators

Hi this is my next good one for you



    JAL tutorial and libraries

    PICC Lite               

    PIC Basic               

Reade more >>

Tools & Data

Hi this is my next good one for you

HD44780 LCD Commands      

 LED Array calculator (very good site)
 SNAP Scaleable Node Address Protocol

Useful Microchip Application Notes

 Interfacing PICmicro® MCUs to an LCD Module

Reade more >>


Hi this is my next good one for you

Reade more >>

PIC Projects & Circuits

Hi this is my next good one for you
Reade more >>


Hi this is my next good one for you

Reade more >>

AVR links

Hi this is my next good one for you here you can find a lot of useful links about projects ,tutorials etc about ATMEL AVR

Reade more >>

Newnes - Programming PIC MCUs with PicBasic

Hi this is my next good one for you

Newnes - Programming PIC MCUs with PicBasic 

To download please click here

Reade more >>

Interfacing PIC Microcontrollers

Hi this is my next good one for you

Interfacing PIC Microcontrollers

to download please click here

Reade more >>

PCB etching tutorial

Hi this is my next good one for you

How to make PCBs at home

What you need

 Required materials

  Magazines or advertising brochures

   Laser printer 
Alternately, a photocopier should work

    Household clothes iron

   Copper clad laminate

    Etching solution Ferric chloride solution,
about 1 liter/ 0,26 gallons

     Kitchen scrubs

     Thinner (e.g. acetone)

        Plastic coated wire

How it works

Laser printers and photocopiers use plastic toner, not ink, to draw images. Toner is the black powder that ends up on your clothes and desk when replacing the printer cartridge. Being plastics, toner is resistant to etching solutions used for making PCBs - if only you could get it on copper!
Modifying a printer for working with copper is out of question, but you can work around it with the toner-transfer principle. Like most plastics, toner melts with heat, turning in a sticky, glue-like paste. So why not print on paper as usual, place the sheet face-down on PCB copper, and melt toner on copper applying heat and pressure?
Almost right. Right now you got paper toner-glued to PCB copper. Last step is to find a way to remove paper leaving toner on the copper, and you’re done.
I must credit Thomas Gootee for finding a solution putting glossy, inkjet photo paper in his laser printer. He found that the glossy coating dissolves in water. As most of the toner does not penetrate the glossy surface, you can easily remove the paper support with water: the gloss dissolves and you can remove paper.
Clever, isn’t it?

Unfortunately, the kind of paper used by Thomas is being replaced by new, improved, WATERPROOF (!) photo paper. This is good for your photo prints, but doesn't work anymore for PCBs.

While searching for more information on the subject, I found a newsgroup thread that suggested replacing expensive inkjet photo paper with glossy paper recycled from magazines. Magazines use ink, not toner, for printing, so previous printing shouldn’t affect the process. Another great idea! I tried it and worked so well that I decided to spread the word. Read on for a complete tutorial and my hands-on tips.

Finding the right paper

The perfect paper should be: glossy, thin, and cheap. The kind of stuff that looks lustrous and shiny when new, but so cheap it quickly turns into pulp when wet. If you ever found a mailbox full of squashy mail on a rainy day, you already know the answer: paper used for most mail advertising and magazines fits perfectly the requisites. I tried pages from the free advertising magazine IEN,catalogues , travel agent’s brochures, TV programme magazine, and all worked well. I don’t expect great difference using paper from most magazines. As a rule of thumb, if humidity in your bathroom turns your magazine in bad shape, it should be OK. If the humidity on your fingertips is enough to feel a sticky sensation while touching its gloss coating, it should be OK. Feel free to experiment: almost any glossy magazine paper will work. I like thin paper over thick one, and prefer recycled paper over new paper.

Paper preparation

I discard pages heavily printed, preferring pages with normal-size text on white background. Although ink usually does not transfer on the PCB, heavy print of headlines sometimes accumulate so much ink that some gets on copper.
Cut the paper to a size suitable for your printer. Try to get straight, clean cuts, as jagged borders and paper dust are more prone to clog printer mechanism. An office cutter is ideal, but also a blade-cutter and a steady hand work well.
Be careful to remove all staples, bindings, gadget glue or similar stuff, as they can damage printer’s drum and mechanisms.

Printer setup

Laser printers are not designed for handling thin, cheap paper, so we must help them feeding the sheets manually instead of using the paper tray. Selecting a straight paper path minimizes the chances of clogging. This is usually achieved setting the printer as if it were printing on envelopes.

You want to put as much toner on paper as possible, so disable “toner economy modes” and set printer properties to the maximum contrast and blackness possible. You want to print your PCB to exact size, so disable any form of scaling/resizing (e.g. “fit to page”). If your printer driver allows, set it to “center to page” as it helps to get the right position using a non-standard size sheet. 


Disclaimer: your laser printer is not designed to handle this kind of paper. Feeding your printer with paper other than special laser printer paper could damage it and potentially voids the warranty. So you are warned: do it at your own risk.
Print your PCB layout as usual, except you must setup the printer as described above and you must print a mirrored layout.
This is my PC thermometer circuit printed on IEN magazine paper. Notice that it is a mirror image of the circuit (the word PCTHERM is reversed). Placing some text helps recognizing when the layout is mirrored. Text will read straight again once the image is transferred on copper. If you look it very closely, you can see that toner is not opaque enough to 100% cover the words underneath, but this won’t affect etching.

How to cut raw material

PCB material is fibreglass like, and a trick to cut it effortlessly is to score a groove with a blade cutter or a glass cutter. The groove weakens the board to the point that bending it manually breaks it along the groove line. This method is applicable only when cutting the whole board along a line that goes from side to side, that is you can’t cut a U or L shaped board with it.
For small boards, I lock the PCB material in a vice, aligning vice edge and cut line. I use an all-aluminium vice which is soft and doesn’t scratch copper, if you use a steel vice protect copper surface with soft material.
Using the vice as a guide, I score BOTH board sides with a blade cutter (be careful) or another sharp, hardened tool (e.g. a small screwdriver tip). Ensure to scratch edge-to-edge. Repeat this step 5-6 times on each side.
Bend the board. If groove is deep enough, the board will break before reaching a 30 degrees bend. It will break quite abruptly so be prepared and protect your hands with gloves.
To make paper alignment easier, cut a piece of PCB material that is larger (at least 10mm/0,39 inch for each side) than the final PCB.

Cleaning the board for transfer

It is essential that the copper surface is spotlessly clean and free from grease that could adverse etching. To remove oxide from copper surface, I use the abrasive spongy scrubs sold for kitchen cleaning. It’s cheaper than ultra-fine sandpaper and reusable many times. Metallic wool sold for kitchen cleaning purposes also works. Thoroughly scrub copper surface until really shiny. Rinse and dry with a clean cloth or kitchen paper.
TIP: "...I had a bar of "Solvol" soap in the kitchen cupboard, This stuff is like normal soap but with sand mixed in with it or something. Mechanics and so on often use it as its really good at cleaning the grease and stuff off your hands. It is like soap with built-in sandpaper. Not much effort with some Solvol soap cleaned copper right up..."
Robert Davidson

Preparing for transfer

To make paper alignment easy, cut excess paper around one corner (leave a small margin though). Leave plenty of paper on the other sides to fix the paper to the desk. As the board is larger than the final PCB, there is large margin for easy placement of paper on copper.
Turn the iron to its maximum heat (COTTON position) and turn off steam, if present. While the iron warms up, position the materials on the table. Don’t work on an ironing board as its soft surface makes it difficult to apply pressure and keep the PCB in place. Protect table surface with flat, heat-resistant material (e.g. old magazines) and place the board on top, copper face up. Lock the board in place with double-adhesive tape. Position the PCB printout over the copper surface, toner down, and align paper and board corners. Lock the paper with scotch tape along one side only. This way, you can flip the paper in and out instantly.

Iron it!

Flip out the paper, and preheat copper surface placing the iron on top of it for 30 seconds. Remove the iron, flip back paper into its previous position over the copper. It is essential that paper does not slip from its position. You can also cover with a second sheet of blank paper to distribute pressure more evenly. Keep moving the iron, while pressing down as evenly as you can, for about one minute.
Remove the iron and let the board to cool down.


This is the fun part. When the board is cool enough to touch, trim excess paper and immerge in water. Let it soak for 1 minute, or until paper softens.

Cheap paper softens almost immediately, turning into a pulp that is easy to remove rubbing with your thumb. Keep rubbing until all paper dissolves (usually less than 1 minute). Don’t be afraid to scratch toner, if it has transferred correctly it forms a very strong bond with copper.

The board with all paper removed. It is OK if some microscopic paper fibres remain on the toner (but remove any fibre from copper), giving it a silky feeling. It is normal that these fibres turn a little white when dry.

Magnified view of the tracks, these are 1206 pads and SO8 SMT pads, connected by 20 mils tracks. Some white fibres show up on the black toner surface.

The hanger tool

The optimal way to etch is keeping the PCB horizontal and face-down (and possibly stirring). This way dissolved copper gets rapidly dispersed in the solution by gravity. Stirring keeps its concentration even, so the solution close to the PCB does not saturate and etching proceeds quicker. Unfortunately it is not easy to keep the PCB in place in an highly corrosive acid. This hanger is my best attempt to solve the problem. I made it with plastic-insulated copper wire. The wire must have a rigid core, but must be also easy enough to adapt to the board by hand without tools. Core diameter of 1 to 2mm is fine. Give it the form of an “arm” (the handle) ending with 4 “fingers”.
Each finger has a ring tip that fits a corner of the board. Close fingers around board corners: now you can use the handle to splash the board into the etching solution, stir, and inspect how etching proceeds.


There are many alternatives for etching liquids, and you can use the one that suits your taste. I use ferric chloride (the brown stuff): it’s cheap, can be reused many times, and doesn’t require heating. Actually, moderate heating can speed up etching, but I find it reasonably fast also at room temperature (10…15 minutes).
The down side of this stuff is that it’s incredibly messy. It permanently stains everything it gets in contact with: not only clothes or skin (never wear your best clothes when working with it!), but also furniture, floor tiles, tools, everything. It is concentrated enough to corrode any metal – including your chrome-plated sink accessories. Even vapours are highly corrosive: don’t forget the container open or it will turn any tool or metallic shelf nearby into rust.
For etching, I place the container on the floor (some scrap cardboard or newspaper to protect the floor from drops). I fit the board on the hanger, and submerge the PCB. Stir occasionally by waving the hanger.

First impression may be that nothing happens, but in less than 10 minutes some copper is removed, making first tracks to appear. From now on, stir continuously and check often, as the process completes rather quickly. You don’t want to overdo it, otherwise thinner tracks start being eroded sideways. As a rule of thumb, stop 30 seconds after you don’t see any copper leftovers over large areas.

Rinse the board with plenty, plenty, plenty of water
I store the etching solution in the same plastic box used for etching. When the job is done I just put the hermetic lid on. To further minimize risks of leakage, I put the container inside the bigger one I use for rinsing, put the second lid, and store it in a safe place.

Disclaimer: These are dangerous chemicals. Always read the labels that come with the solution, handle it wearing protective gloves and goggles, keep windows open, don’t inhale the fumes.

Finishing touches

Reade more >>

Physics: Optics:

Hi this is my next good one for you

  • ABCD Laser Beam Propagation Software - A Macintosh-based program for propagating Gaussian laser beams through various optical elements or calculating eigenmodes of simple resonators.
  • ATMOS and AtmosFRINGE - Amateur telescope maker optical design and analysis software is a program for designing and analyzing telescope configurations. AtmosFRINGE is an interferogram analysis software used to extract quantitative wavefront measurements from a laser interferogram.
  • Barnard Microsystems - Develops microwave and optotelectronic device and circuit design software.
  • Bentec Multiplexed Hyperaspheric Optical Surfaces - Provides free download optical software (aspheric/hyperaspheric), designs and manufactures aspheric polymer optics. Non-spherical wavefront transformation lenses are designed to specification.
  • Breault Research Organization, Inc. - Software and consulting services for the development and analysis of optical systems.
  • Computational Optics Group (COG) - Software for computational optics and computational electromagnetics. Offers MaX-1, a general Maxwell solver, MMP is a Multiple Multipole Program, GMT solves for electrodynamic fields. Includes evolutionary optimization, genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies
  • Diffraction International - DURANGO interferometry software for data acquisition, analysis, evaluation and simulation. Support of many interferometer hardware.
  • Diffractive Optics Design - This site presents a new powerful and versatile softaware for diffractive optics design.
  • EM Explorer - A software package consisting of a number of simulation engines for rigorous EM scattering and optical imaging simulations.
  • Electron Optical Design - Software for the design of charged particle optics devices.
  • Engineering Calculations - Offers KDP-2, an optical design and analysis program. Also provides custom optical design and analysis consulting services.
  • FCSEL OpenFilters - Open source software for the design, optimization, and synthesis of optical interference coatings.
  • FTG Software Associates - Software for optical thin film coating and spectrophotometer data acquisition
  • Femtosoft Technologies - Sells retrieval software for the measurement of femtosecond laser pulses using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG).
  • Fit ;o) - Mössbauer spectroscopy fitting and analysis program written in Borland Delphi. It has a graphical user interface that allows all actions to be carried out via mouse clicks or key shortcut operations.
  • Focus - Curve fitting software for the Windows operating system that has been developed to facilitate spectroscopic modelling and data exchange.
  • Grating Solver Development Company - GSOLVER is a tool for analysis of gratings with arbitrary groove profile based on full vector diffraction. Antenna Solver is a rigorous antenna analysis program
  • HOLOOR - Offers DOE-CAD, a software for design, masks generation and performance modeling of diffractive optical elements. The company also provides beam shapers and focusers, F-Theta lenses and lenslet arrays.
  • Hesotar - Virtual Nonlinear Optics Workbook. The software enables students and scientists to perform numerical experiments in nonlinear optics. A free demo is provided.
  • IME Software - Provides physics educational software: RAYTRACE, for teaching geometrical optics, GASSIM is a molecular simulation program, ELF is an electric field and equipotential plotter.
  • Imatest - A software that uses inexpensive and widely-available test charts to measure device sharpness (MTF), perceptual sharpness (SQF) and many other parameters.
  • International Intellectual Group, Inc. - PC Grate is a software for calculations of diffraction efficiency of different types of relief gratings on PCs.
  • LAS-CAD GmbH - Laser cavity design and analysis code LASCAD, including FEA and DPSSL analysis.
  • LTI Optics, LLC - Provides software for photometric analysis and lighting design of non-imaging optical systems. Products are Photopia and Lumen Micro.
  • Lambda Research Corporation - Their products include the TracePro software for illumination analysis featuring tutorials on using a light pipe and the OSLO optical lens design software.
  • Laser Fourier Adaptive Method (LaserFOAM) - Simulates the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in photonic crystal fibers using an adaptive split-step Fourier method (free, python).
  • LensForge - A lens design software for Mac OS X that makes possible the simulation of ray propagation in different optical systems.
  • Light Tec - Distributor of software for optical design, illumination, straylight, integrated optics and color measurements.
  • LightTrans VirtualLab - Provides tools that allow straightforward analysis of systems, design of diffractive optical elements and beam shapers, analysis of gratings and laser resonator analysis.
  • MC Grating - Software for grating analysis and design based on Chandezon, True and Fourier methods.
  • MIE Software - Software for Mie scattering calculations.
  • MIT Photonic-Bands - Software for computing optical band structures (dispersion relations) in periodic dielectric structures and photonic crystals (free, C source).
  • MODAS - Modern Optical Design and Analysis Software - Paraxial and Seidel calculations, spot diagrams, ray fans, 3D wave aberrations and energy distribution, optical layout, optimization. (MS-Win, free crippled version available).
  • MS Macrosystem - Offers 3-dimensional visualization software for laser beam topography, optical interferometry, and atomic force microscopy.
  • Multilayer Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (MRCWA) - A fast, flexible optical grating solver. It calculates an exact solution using Maxwell's equations for the diffraction of light from an optical grating defined by the user through a set of intuitive python bindings.
  • NaturalGrafiX: ImageIron - A high precision software used for automatic capture and removal of lens aberrations (such as distortion and vignetting) of high-end digital cameras.
  • OPTIS - Optical design and analysis software. CAD software for light simulation. Products are SPEOS, SOLSTIS, OPTICALC and LIGHT.
  • OXALIS-LASER - 3D coherent beam propagation and Gaussian beam propagation software along optical systems and laser cavities, including diffraction, gain saturation, thermal lensing and others physical effects. Products are SimCa and COMMOD.
  • OpTaliX - Comprehensive optical design and thin film analysis software. Supports 3d surface tilts, aspheres, gratings, gradient index, spline deformation, optimization, diffraction analysis, coatings.
  • Optalix - Software for optical system design, thin-films and illumination.
  • Optical Data Solutions, Inc. - Offers LensVIEW, a CD-ROM database of lens design examples found in the optical design literature, mainly from patents. Includes more than 30000 individual designs.
  • Optical Research Associates - Optical design and illumination software. Also pages educating about optics.
  • Optical Systems Design, Inc. - Information and download of SYNOPSYS lens design program (SYNthesis of OPtical SYStems) evaluation copy.
  • OpticalSoftware - Different optical software packages. Lens designer, ray tracker and custom material creator.
  • Optics Lab - Optical raytracing software for optical design and analysis.
  • Optics Lab Optical Ray Tracing Software - Program helps use evaluate optical systems for performance standards. Page includes list of specifications, free demo and pricing information.
  • Optima-Research - Supplies equipment and software for scientists and engineers. Also provides training in computer-based optical design and modelling.
  • Optiwave - Software for integrated and fiber optics.
  • Photon Design - Software tools for integrated optics, fibre optics, diode laser, TWA and diffractive optics modelling. Products include FIMMWAVE, FIMMPROP-3D and CLADISS-2D.
  • Photon Design - Provides a suite of photonics software including a mode solver, optical propagation tool, design and simulation tools.
  • Photon Engineering - Optical engineering and optics-related software development such as FRED (optical engineering software package).
  • Quick MTF - This software is designed for assessment and comparison of the major lens quality components. It measures resolution and chromatic aberration.
  • RSoft Design Group, Inc. - Photonics design automation software. Offers a range of photonic and network design automation products including a component design suite, the simulation of single mode and multimode optical communication systems and a network modeling package.
  • SCIOPT Enterprises - Software for Optical, Laser, and Integrated Optical system design. Products are PARAXIA, SIGRAPH-OPTIK, OPTEC.
  • Sarkomand Software - Optical simulation, particle beams, and other scientific software (Macintosh).
  • Scientific Computing International SCI - Software for optical thin film design, characterization and metrology systems. Current products include: Film Wizard, Film Spectrum and Film Ellipse.
  • Semiconsoft - Thin Film Optical Metrology Software (Ellipsometry, Reflectance, Transmittance) for research and development and production. The main product is TFCompanion, a software application for thin film analysis and metrology. Includes analytical tools for interpretation of measurement data. Available for all operating systems with JVM support (Windows, Apple, Unix).
  • Sinclair Optics, Inc. - OSLO optical design software. Free evaluation level OSLO LT available.
  • Sky Scientific Optical Design and Astronomy - Offers optical design software for engineering professionals, students and educators. Products for astronomy and astrophotography.
  • Software Spectra - Software for designing and manufacturing optical multi-layer thin film coatings. Its primary product is TFCalc.
  • Stellar Software. - Beam III, IV, optical raytracer for use by students and optical engineers. Windows and Mac versions available.
  • TEC++ - Optical design and analysis software VOB by METEC with optimization.
  • Thin Film Center, Inc. - Offers optical thin film design and analysis software and product descriptions for Essential Macleod. Training services and consulting for the coating industry.
  • UNIGIT - Vector optical diffraction solver for 2D and 3D patterned multilayer stacks and gratings based on the MMFE and the Rayleigh-Fourier Method.
  • Universitat de Barcelona - The Optical Charactersisation Group offers software tools for the optical characterisation of thin film materials and multilayer stacks based on spectrophotometric and ellipsometric measurements.
  • WaveSim - FRESNEL, software that simulates laser beam propagation through various optical schemes.
  • Wavelab Scientific Ptd., Ltd - Provider of ZEMAX optical design software, ZEMAX training courses, tfcalc thin film design software and laser cavity design software.
  • WinLase - Software for laser resonator design and gaussian beam propagation (MS-Win, demo available).
  • ZEMAX - Software for all aspects of optical system design.
Reade more >>

Physics: Particle

Hi this is my next good one for you

  • AcerMC Monte Carlo Generator - The AcerMC Monte-Carlo event generator is dedicated for generation of the Standard Model background processes in pp collisions at the LHC.
  • CalcHEP - Software for model building and collider phenomenology. [PDF]
  • CompHEP - Package for evaluation of Feynman diagrams, integration over multi-particle phase space and event generation.
  • Elementary Particles Simulation - Elementary Particles Simulation using Java Technology.An application made for educational purposes.
  • FLUKA (Fluktuierende Kaskade) - A stand-alone particle physics Monte-Carlo simulation package. It is being used as a simulation tool in a number of experiments.
  • Fermitools - The Fermilab Software Tools Program (Fermitools) aims to provide useful tools to the community. A wide range of tools are available, and all are free.
  • FeynArts - Mathematica package for generation and visualization of Feynman diagrams and amplitudes.
  • FeynCalc - Mathematica package for algebraic calculations in elementary particle physics, focusing on Feynman diagram calculations.
  • - Free C++ library for drawing Feynman diagrams. The output is in PostScript, which can be used in TeX or printed directly.
  • FeynFig - FeynFig is a program to generate feynman diagrams in xfig format.
  • Feynmf - Drawing Feynman diagrams with LaTeX and Metafont.
  • FreeHEP - Virtual organization involved in the development of open-source software for data analysis and visualization, primarily for use in high energy, nuclear and astro- physics.
  • HERWIG - A Monte Carlo package for simulating hadron emission reactions with interfering gluons. Also includes a list of some "competitor" generators.
  • Hanna - A C-based Analysis Tool for the HERMES experiment at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany.
  • Monte Carlo Number Scheme - MC particle numbering convention, endorsed by the Particle Data Group.
  • PYTHIA (and JETSET) - An event generator for a large number of physics processes. The site contains the latest source, the official manual and a short write-up describing PYTHIA's status with respect to the physics.
  • Pandora - A physics event generator for linear collider studies. It includes beamstrahlung, initial state radiation, hadronization, and full treatment of polarization effects.
  • Phi (Phenomenology of Hadronic Interactions) - Extension of the Mathematica packages, FeynCalc and FeynArts.
  • Povama - Persint OpenGL Visualization for ATLAS Muon Analysis. Software used to visualize the reconstruction of muon traces.
  • StdHep - Provides a common output format for Monte Carlo events so that event generators and other simulators can easily be compared. It also provides a set of routines which convert Herwig, Jetset, Isajet, or QQ events to and from the standard HEP event format.
  • Texsis - TeX Macros for Physicists - This package provides a number of useful features for typesetting research papers. It is an extension to Plain Tex.
  • The ROOT System - An object oriented framework for large scale data analysis. ROOT is a C++ replacement of the popular PAW program developed at CERN.
  • cfortran.h - Interfacing C/C++ and FORTRAN - cfortran.h is a single header file that allows you to easily use fortran code in c and c++. Very useful for using HBOOK and other CERNLIB code in new c++ applications.
Reade more >>