Wednesday, 19 December 2012

Digital Circuits And Design,by Salivahanan, S Arivazhagan, S

Digital Circuits And Design,by Salivahanan, S Arivazhagan, S

Digital Circuits And Design, 2/eDigital Circuits and Design Buy DIGITAL CIRCUITS AND DESIGN 3/ED: Book

The use of digital circuits is increasing in all disciplines of engineering. Consequently students need to have an in-depth knowledge on them. Digital Circuits and Design is a textbook dealing with the basics of digital technology including the design aspects of circuits. The third edition is divided into 16 chapters. Each chapter begins with an introduction and ends with review questions and problems. The book fulfills the requirements of the students of various BE/BTech degree courses including Electronics and Communication Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Information Technology, Computer Science and Engineering, and Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering offered in all Indian universities. The book will also serve as textbook to students of BSc and MSc courses in Electronics and Communication, Information Technology, Computer Science, Applied Physics and Computer Software, MCA, AMIE, Grad. IETE and diploma courses, and as reference for competitive examinations. 

The new edition of this popular and best-selling text on Digital Circuits And Design includes new chapters on D/A & A/D Converters, Clock Generators and Applications of Digital Circuits It includes solved and unsolved problems, review questions and exercises. Comprehensive, student-friendly, clear and thoroughly updated, this book provides a solid foundation in modern digital circuits and design principles.

1. Number System and Codes
2. Boolean Algebra and Minimization Techniques
3. Logic Gates
4. Logic Families
5. Arithmetic Circuits
6. Combinational Circuits
7. Flip-Flops
8. Counters
9. Registers
10. Memory Devices
11. Synchronous Sequential Circuits
12. Asynchronous Sequential Circuits
13. D/A and A/D Converters
14. Clock Generators
15. Applications of Digital Circuits

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The semiconductor diode is formed by simply bringing an n- type and p- type materials together. At the instant the two materials joined together the electrons and holes in the region of junction will combine resulting in a lack of carriers in the region near the junction.
This region of uncovered positive and negative ions is called the depletion region due to the depletion carriers in this region.
There are three possible type of diode operating conditions. They are:

(a)  No bias
(b)  Forward biasing
(c)  Reverse biasing

Under no-bias condition, any minority carriers in the n-type material that find themselves within the depletion region will pass directly into the p-type material. The closer the minority carrier is to the junction, the greater the attraction for the layer of negative ions and the less the opposition of positive ions in the depletion region of the n-type material. In the absence of an applied bias voltage, the net flow of charge in any one direction for a semiconductor diode is zero.


If an external potential V volts applied across the p-n junction such that the positive terminal is connected to the n-type material and negative terminal to the p-type material. The number of uncovered positive ions in the depletion region of the n-type material will increase due to the large number of free electrons drawn to the positive potential of the applied voltage. The net effect is the widening of the depletion region which will establish a great barrier to the majority carriers, effectively reducing the majority carrier flow to zero. However, number of minority carriers entering depletion region will not change, resulting in minority carrier flow. The current that exists under reverse bias conditions is called the reverse saturation current and is represented by Is.

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Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics (3rd Edition) By Stan Gibilisco

Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics (3rd Edition) By Stan Gibilisco

Teach Yourself Electricity and ElectronicsThe quickest way to learn the hows and whys behind computing, communications, robotics, entertainment devices, and the force that makes them work
Great for preparing for licensing exams, previous editions of this guide have been prized by thousands of students and professionals for the book's uniquely thorough coverage, ranging from dc and ac concepts and circuits to semiconductors and integrated circuits. Packed with more than 500 learning-enhanced illustrations, practical examples, and self-quizzes and tests, this matchless reference:

* Helps you solve current-voltage-resistance-impedance problems and MAKE POWER calculations
* Teaches simple circuit design and optimization of circuit efficiency
* Explains the theory behind advanced audio systems  and amplifiers for live music
* Features practical new information on wireless  technologies, computers, the Internet, and more

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Modern Antenna Handbook by Constantine

Modern Antenna Handbook by Constantine A. 

Modern Antenna Handbook, book, ebook, e-book, PDF, Adobe, download, free, library, online  
The most up-to-date, comprehensive treatment of classical and modern antennas and their related technologies"Modern Antenna Handbook" represents the most current and complete thinking in the field of antennas. The handbook is edited by one of the most recognizable, prominent, and prolific authors, educators, and researchers on antennas and electromagnetics. Each chapter is authored by one or more leading international experts and includes cover-age of current and future antenna-related technology. The information is of a practical nature and is intended to be useful for researchers as well as practicing engineers.From the fundamental parameters of antennas to antennas for mobile wireless communications and medical applications  "Modern Antenna Handbook" covers everything professonal engineers  consultants, researchers, and students need to know about the recent developments and the future direction of this fast-paced field.In addition to antenna topics, the handbook also covers modern technologies such as metamaterils microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), frequency selective surfaces (FSS), and radar cross sections (RCS) and their applications to antennas, while five chapters are devoted to advanced numerical/computational methods targeted primarily for the analysis and design of antennas.
download link click here

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Concepts Of Physics (Vol. 2) By H C Verma

Concepts Of Physics (Vol. 2) By H C Verma

Concepts Of Physics 

Buy Concepts Of Physics (Volume - 2): Book
Concepts of Physics (Volume - 2) covers an exhaustive list of topics  that are necessary for a pre-college student. The book provides many examples and exercises based on these concepts, and these cater to students preparing for competitive exams, mainly those pertaining to the fields of engineering and medicine.
H C Verma’s Concepts of Physics is a comprehensive theoretical and conceptual guide that covers topics ranging from heat and temperature to semiconductor devices. The book starts with a chapter on Heat and Temperature and Kinetic Theory of Gases and explains the terminologies, units and problems that will be used through the course of the chapter.
Further, the laws of thermodynamics and heat transfer are explained before the subject moves towards concepts like electric field and potential. The same chapter covers topics like capacitors, Gauss’s Law and electric current in conductors. The subsequent chapters encompass topics like magnetic fields, permanent magnets, magnetic fields due to current, and electromagnetic waves. The final portion of the book explains the special theory of relativity. The book has two Appendix sections that provide an insight into the terminologies and definitions covered in the book.
Dr. Verma’s books are appreciated by students because of his detailed take on the subject and the wide range of numerical problems provided. The book serves as idealstudy material for competitive exams like IIT-JEE and other state level engineering exams.
About The Author
Dr. Verma
 is an Indian experimental physicist, educationist, lecturer and author in the field of nuclear science Apart from his research in areas of physics involving meteorites and EarthScience, he also gives lectures on topics like India’s heritage and cultural values.
Concepts of Physics (Volume - 1) was Dr. Verma’s first book, and it was well received due to its comprehensive content. His other works include:
Quantum physics
  • Foundation Science Physics
Dr. Harish Chandra Verma was awarded a doctoral degree at IIT-Kanpur. He began his career at Patna University as a lecturer and was then appointed as a reader. He’s currently employed at the department of Physics at IIT-Kanpur. Dr. Verma has also initiated personal endeavors for improving the Indian educational system. This can be seen through his ‘School Physics Project’ and ‘Shiksha Sopan’, a teaching institute that focuses on spreading knowledge among the underdeveloped sections around IIT-Kanpur.
Table Of Contents
chapter 23: Reat and Temperature
Chapter 24: Kinetic Theory of gases
Chapter 25: Calorimetry
Chapter 26: Law of thermodynamics
Chapter 27: Specific heat Capacities of gases
Chapter 28: Heat Transfer
Chapter 29: Electric field and potential
Chapter 30: Gauss's Law
Chapter 31: Capacitors
Chapter 32: Electric current in conductors
Chapter 33: Thermal and chemical effects of electric current
Chapter 34: Magnetic field
Chapter 35: Magnetic field due to a current
Chapter 36: Permanent Magnets
Chapter 37: Magnetic properties of matter
Chapter 38: Electromagnetic induction
Chapter 39: Alternating current
Chapter 40: Electromagnetic Waves
Chapter 41: Electric Current through gases
Chapter 42: Photoelectric Effect and wave- Particle Duality
Chapter 43: Bohr's Model and Physics of the Atom
Chapter 44: X-rays
Chapter 45: Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices
Chapter 46: The Nucleus
Chapter 47: The special theory of relativity

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Tuesday, 18 December 2012

what is JAVA

What Is Java?
Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems, a company
best known for its high-end Unix workstations. Modeled after C++, the Java language was
designed to be small, simple, and portable across platforms and operating systems, both at the
source and at the binary level (more about this later).
Java is often mentioned in the same breath as HotJava, a World Wide Web browser from Sun
like Netscape or Mosaic (see Figure 1.1). What makes HotJava different from most other
browsers is that, in addition to all its basic Web features, it can also download and play applets
on the reader’s system. Applets appear in a Web page much in the same way as images do, but
unlike images, applets are dynamic and interactive. Applets can be used to create animations,
figures, or areas that can respond to input from the reader, games, or other interactive effects on
the same Web pages among the text and graphics.
Although HotJava was the first World Wide Web browser to be able to play Java applets, Java
support is rapidly becoming available in other browsers. Netscape 2.0 provides support for Java
applets, and other browser developers have also announced support for Java in forthcoming
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image impedance
Image impedance is a concept used in electronic network design and analysis and most especially in filter design. The term image impedance applies to the impedance seen looking in to the ports of a network. Usually a two-port network is implied but the concept is capable of being extended to networks with more than two ports. The definition of image impedance for a two-port network is the impedance, Zi 1, seen looking in to port 1 when port 2 is terminated with the image impedance, Zi 2, for port 2. In general, the image impedances of ports 1 and 2 will not be equal unless the network is symmetrical (or anti-symmetrical) with respect to the ports.
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Thursday, 13 September 2012

Artificial Intelligence is all about bringing Common Sense, Expert Knowledge, and Superhuman Reasoning to Computers. For the most part, AI does not produce stand-alone systems, but instead adds knowledge and reasoning to existing applications, databases, and environments, to make them friendlier, smarter, and more sensitive to user behavior and changes in their environments.
In the domain of Artificial intelligence, various problem-solving techniques have been developed. Though working towards the common goal of making a computer 'intelligent', all these techniques use different methodologies. Case Based Reasoning is one of these techniques. Computer systems that solve new problems by analogy with old ones are often called Case Based Reasoning (CBR) systems.
This paper answers fundamental questions like what is CBR and how is it related to human reasoning, the different issues involved in developing a CBR system and CBR's comparison with other problem-solving techniques.
Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is a powerful technique to search and retrieve information from a collection of past experiences (cases). These technologies enable preserving and sharing best practices in service and diagnostic.
Consider a simple example of Case Based Reasoning (CBR) that deals with car diagnostics. A case stored in the case base is a fault that has been solved in the past. The case description is made up of effects, such as observed symptoms (e.g., engine does not start) and context parameters (e.g., ignition key is turned on). It can also include measured parameters for example, the state of the electronic control units obtained using testing equipment. The solution is the maintenance operation.
With CBR, you can make use of the experience captured in this case base to solve new diagnostic problems. If you encounter a new, unsolved diagnostic problem, a past case that is similar to your new problem will very likely contain an appropriate maintenance operation.
Analogy to human reasoning
When confronted with a new problem, a technician with no or little experience may attempt to analyze the problem using a Fault Isolation Manual, if there is one and if this is not an overly time-consuming task. He might also try to find the source of the problem by himself, in which case he may end up changing the wrong parts. Finally, he might ask for help, either by calling the car manufacturers technical support center or by asking a more experienced colleague.
A more-experienced mechanic can recall past cases he has solved. His intuitive thinking process is, "Have I ever seen a similar problem before? If so, what did I do to solve it?" If the more-experienced mechanic can find the solution and fix the car, his less-experienced colleague will learn from this new experience and build up his own memory of
solved cases. This human ability to learn is a key to human intelligence and
If the experience of its employees is indeed a valuable asset to a company, it makes sense to try to capture this experience and store it in such a way that it can be reused in the future and shared among the company's individuals. 


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A new approach to passport authentication
One of the serious issues today is about providing security and checking for the authenticity.  Here comes the question of difference between authorization and authentication in which authorization is about providing access to users while coming to authentication, it deals with the originality of user, that is, checking whether the user is the correct person to access or not.

One of the serious problems is how to authenticate the passport document for its holder. Most of the Passport document contains a holder's signature in addition, of course, to the full name. Here we present a method which uses the watermarking(Imaging) concept  at the time of passport issuing. The modern method of issuing a passport is by using a computer in fixing the passport's photo. In using this method we could hide the invisible watermark which contains the digest name and passport number inside the passport's photo. After having dealt with this process of issuing passport, it is very easy to check whether the details are correct or not by comparing the details from database and from the hidden watermark as the watermark contains digest name and the passport number.

We implement this method consisting of algorithms, one for getting values from the passport document, one for converting all the details into a single value and another for hiding the single value in the photo.

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Friday, 3 August 2012


To a piece of paper ink infused with carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires is applied
scientists at stanford university in california reported they have successfully turned paper
coated with ink made of silver and carbon nanomaterials into a 'paper battery' that holds promise
for new types of lightweight, high-performance energy storage. ordinary paper could one day
be used as a lightweight battery to power the devices that are now enabling the printed word
to be eclipsed by e-mail, e-books and online news.
the same feature that helps ink adhere to paper allows it to hold onto the single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowire films. earlier research found that silicon nanowires could be used
to make batteries 10 times as powerful as lithium-ion batteries now used to power devices such as
laptop computers.

'taking advantage of the mature paper technology, low cost, light and high-performance
energy-storage are realized by using conductive paper as current collectors and electrodes,'
the scientists said in research published in the proceedings of the national academy of sciences.

this type of battery could be useful in powering electric or hybrid vehicles, would make electronics
lighter weight and longer lasting, and might even lead someday to paper electronics, the scientists said.
battery weight and life have been an obstacle to commercial viability of electric-powered cars
and trucks.

'society really needs a low-cost, high-performance energy storage device, such as batteries
and simple supercapacitors,' stanford assistant professor of materials science and engineering
and paper co-author yi cui said.

cui said in an e-mail that in addition to being useful for portable electronics and wearable electronics,
'our paper supercapacitors can be used for all kinds of applications that require instant high power...
since our paper batteries and supercapacitors can be very low cost, they are also good for
grid-connected energy storage,' he said.

peidong yang, professor of chemistry at the university of california-berkeley, said the technology
could be commercialised within a short time.

 prepares a small square of ordinary paper with an ink that will deposit carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires on the surface
that can then be charged with energy to create a battery. turns into a battery or supercapacitor...

...even if you crumple the piece of paper... still works.
all images courtesy standford university

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Tuesday, 3 April 2012

led scrolling message display using pic 16f628a

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Friday, 9 March 2012


Hi friends in this session i am going to show you "how can we earn from internet ??" there are so many ways for that but they will not help to improve rather our knowledge or our thinking power so we have to find such a way, that can help us to  make money , at the same time it should help us to improve our knowledge , that is more important because long term income is better that short term one.

Then the next question is " what is the way that can help us not only to improve our financial strength but also our knowledge strength??" , here i can help you if you are ready for hard work ...

let me introduce about a powerful financial profession FOREX TRADING , but it is not suitable for all kind of people they need money ??!!! it is suitable for those who want to make his/her existence in the society , that is we have to work hard for it .It is a highly risk field ,  i am not trying to disappointing anyone i just want make clear about it , on the other hand  it is not easy BUT IT IS SIMPLE ,the second word depends upon our
1. patience
2. our attitude  for  hard work
3. commitment
4.self confidence

every one has all these capabilities but few of them will try to understand that .....
if you have the above capabilities/ if you are ready to make them then your future is in your hand ....
Forex trading depends on our calculation and reference, you can make a different way  of life .if you are ready for that then you have to make a study about it , i will help you for that  you can refer the links below for that

<a href="">InstaForex</a>

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Friday, 24 February 2012

Facebook controlled Robot

more information , coming soon.................


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